II. Cell Injury:
[1] Cell injuries: Aetiology and Pathogenesis with a brief recall of important aspects of normal cell structure.

[2] Reversible cell injury: Types, Sequential changes, Cellular swellings, Vacuolation, Hyaline changes, Mucoid changes.
[3] Irreversible cell injury: a) Necrosis: Types.
b) Gangrene: Types, etiology, description, each type in detail.
c) Autolysis: Types, etiology & description.
[4] Pathologic calcification: Types-mainly Dystrophic and Metastatic.
Etiology, description and pathologic changes.
[5]Intracellular Accumulations-Fatty changes, Protein accumulations, Glycogen accumulations. Pigments–Melanin, Hemosiderin.

[6] Apoptosis. VIII. Nutritional And Other Disorders:
[2] Disorders of pigment metabolism such as bilirubin, melanin, and haemosiderin; Oochronosis, Porphyria, Lipofuschin pigment. [3] Disorders of Exogenous pigments.VII. Growth Disturbances And Neoplasia:
[1] Growth Disturbances: Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, Metaplasia, Malformation, agenesis and dysplasia-in detail. Questions:
Long Essays:
1. Define Necrosis. Explain the causes and pathology of each types of necrosis with examples. [1+8=9] [RS Mar 03, P1]
2. Define Necrosis. Mention The types, explain the causes and pathology of each type of necrosis. [1+3+6=10] [OS Apr 01]
Short Essays:
1. Role of Free radicals in cell injury. [RS Oct 03, P1]
2. What is the role of free radicals in cell injury? [RS Nov 00, P1]
3. Hyaline degeneration. [RS Dec 04, P1]
4. Morphological Features of fatty change in liver and heart. [RS Mar 06, P1]
5. Colliquative necrosis. [RS May 00, P1]
6. Dry gangrene. [RS Mar 04, P1]
7. Differences between dry and wet gangrene. [RS Nov 00, P1] , [OS Sept 02]
8. Dystrophic calcification. [RS May 00, P1]
9. Write briefly about metastatic calcification. [RS Nov 00, P1]
10. Differences between Atrophy/Hypertrophy/Hyperplasia. [RS Nov 00, P1]
11. Metaplasia. [OS Apr 01]
12. Dysplasia. [RS Mar 04, P1]

Short Answers:
1. Mention 2 adhesion molecules of endothelium and its ligands on WBC.
[RS Mar 04, P1]
2. Perfusion Injury in ischemia. [RS Mar 06, P1]
3. Types of Hyaline change with examples. [RS OCT 03, P1] , [RS Sept 02,P1]
4. Causes of fatty liver. [RS Mar 04, P1]
5. List exogenous and endogenous pigments. [RS Mar 06, P1]
6. Caseous necrosis. [RS Mar 05, P1]
7. Morphological features of apoptosis. [RS Mar 06, P1]
8. Morphology of apoptotic cell. [RS Mar 05, P1]
9. Causes of metastatic calcification. [RS Mar 05, P1]



  1. SHEELA PRIYA said,

    12, October , 2010 at 7:33 pm

    hai ths s very usefull

    • anuj gautam said,

      21, February , 2011 at 9:03 pm

      we lack seniors in our college,… as we r the 1st batch…

      lots f problems being faced by us…

  2. anand indore said,

    20, April , 2011 at 10:42 am

    you are so bored

  3. navin prakash said,

    7, April , 2012 at 10:20 pm


  4. vallavan said,

    25, October , 2012 at 7:07 pm


  5. ravi kumar said,

    16, January , 2014 at 1:33 am

    very useful

  6. Avishek kr. bachan said,

    16, January , 2014 at 5:32 pm


  7. tamilarasi said,

    22, May , 2014 at 9:11 am

    very useful and well prepared

  8. Pavithra Nandakumar said,

    22, August , 2017 at 10:22 pm

    Tnq u so much!!!!

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